The series (so far ) contains:
(I will continue with the Islamic History notes series. In this post, we will look at the beginning of the Islamic History – the period of the Prophet (s.a.w.) (very briefly). )
We have already looked at Arabia before the Prophet. Now we will look briefly at the life of the man who changed the whole image of Arabia from a land of ignorance and decadence to a land of knowledge and learning.
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) (at Mecca)
Muhammad (s.a.w.) was born on Monday, 12th of RabiayalAwwal 570 A.D. in the ‘year of the elephant’
He was a posthumous child, his father Abdullah died several weeks before he was born. His grandfather, Abdul Muttalib gave him the name ‘Muhammad’. His mother Amina had named him Ahmed. Halima of Banu Sa’d (a tribe) took care of him as a child for a period of 5 years.
Muhammad(s.a.w.) inherited from his father 5 camels, a flock of goat and a slave girl by the name Umm Aiman.
A very quiet child, he grew up to be known for his honesty as ‘Al-Amin’ (the honest).
At the age of 40 he was appointed as the last messenger of God. For the first 3 years, he preached only to his family and his intimate friends, and gradually others.
The first converts to Islam (in order) were Khadijah (his wife), Ali (his cousin), Zaid and Abu Bakr.
At the end of 3 years, the Prophet(s.a.w.) was told to ‘arise and warn’ — and thus began the open invitation to the submission to God’s will. In 616 A.D, the whole of mecca in opposition to the Prophet decided to boycott the whole of Hashimite clan.
Abu Talib (the Prophet’s uncle who supported him and was the head of the clan), passed away and Abu Lahab (also Prophet’s uncle) became the acknowledged head of the clan. Abu Lahab withdrew his protection from the Prophet.
615 A.D. marks the first immigration of the Muslims — or the Hijrah. The Muslims went to Abyssinia. It was here that Jaafar bin Abi Talib led the deputation to the court of King Negus.
The years 615 A.D. to 620 A.D. were the most difficult years of the Prophet’s life. It was during this period that his wife Khadijah and his uncle who supported him, Abu Talib passed away. The Makhzumi leader ‘Umar bin Hashim’, commonly known as Abu Jahal (the father of ignorance) led opposition to the Prophet. Ummayyad chief Abu Sufyan also joined him. The Prophet tried to get support from outside Mecca — frm Taif (southeast of Mecca) where Thaqif tribe lived, but without success.
In the year 620 A.D a very important event took place. This is known as ‘Al-Aqaba’
The people (6 people) from the tribe of Khazraj (Yathrib, later known as Medina) came to the Prophet to hear what the Prophet said. Next year, 5 of these 6 returned with another 7 people from Bani Aus.
There was a secret meeting between 12 of these and the Prophet (s.a.w) at Aqaba ( a mountain pass between Mina’ and Medina).
Ist Pledge of Aqaba:
“not to associate any other god with Allah,
not to steal or commit adultery,
not to kill their children,
not to make false accusations,
and not to disobey him (the Prophet s.a.w.) in anything that was lawful.”
2nd pledge of Aqaba:
In June 622 A.D., a group of 75 people including two women arrived from Yathrib with other pilgrims to Mecca to pledge their allegiance to the Prophet (s.a.w), and invite him to their city.
to recognize the Prophet (s.a.w.)
to defend him as they would defend their own wives and children.
and it was then that Hijrah was decided upon.
Hijrah – 2nd July 622 A.D.
After the treaty of Aqaba, the hijrah started.
The Quraish were alarmed, and decided on the assassination of the Prophet (s.a.w)
It was then that Ali slept in the place of Prophet, while Abu Bakr accompanied the Prophet from Mecca to Medina.
Their arrival in Quba was greeted with jubilation by both Meccan emigrants and the Ansaar.
Three days after the arrival of the Prophet (s.a.w.) Ali joined them in Medina.