When Umar (r.a.) came to Palestine, he signed a covenant with the existing people of Palestine. This is the content of the treaty. It is beautiful and indeed puts to shame all the “democratic” nations who displace and kill the inhabitants of this holy land.
Palestine was our first Qibla, it shall remain close to heart of all Muslims.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most
This is an assurance of peace and protection given by
the servant of Allah Omar, Commander of the Believers
to the people of Ilia’ (Jerusalem). He gave them an
assurance of protection for their lives, property,
church and crosses as well as the sick and healthy and
all its religious community.
Their churches shall not be occupied, demolished nor
taken away wholly or in part. None of their crosses
nor property shall be seized. They shall not be
coerced in their religion nor shall any of them be
injured. None of the Jews shall reside with them in
The people of Ilia shall pay Jizia tax (head tax on
free non-Muslims living under Muslim rule) as
inhabitants of cities do. They shall evict all Romans
He whoever gets out shall be guaranteed safety for his
life and property until he reach his safe haven. He
whoever stays shall be (also) safe, in which case he
shall pay as much tax as the people of Ilia’ do.
Should any of the people of Ilia wish to move together
with his property along with the Romans and to clear
out of their churches and crosses, they shall be safe
for their lives, churches and crosses, until they have
reached then safe haven. He whoever chooses to stay he
may do so and he shall pay as much tax as the people
of Ilia’ do. He whoever wishes to move along with the
Roman, may do so, and whoever wishes to return back
home to his kinsfolk, may do so. Nothing shall be
taken from them, their crops have been harvested. To
the contents of this convent here are given the
Covenant of Allah, the guarantees of His Messenger,
the Caliphs and the Believers, provided they (the
people of Ilia’) pay their due Jizia tax.
Witnesses hereto are:
Khalid Ibn al-Waleed Amr Ibn al-Ass Abdul-Rahman
Ibn’Auf Mu’awiya Ibn abi-Sifian Made and executed in
the year 15 AH.
The above is the text approved by historians, foremost of whom are Imam al-Tabari. The text appears in his book “Tareekh Al Umam wal Molouk” (History of Nations and Kings), Part III, Page 105, printed in Cairo and collected by a team of scholars and printed in English at Brill Printing Press London.