The series (so far ) contains:
Before Abu Bakr passed away, he appointed Umar as the next caliph.
After the victory of Ajnadain, Muthana came to the capital to ask for reinforcements. On the first day of his caliphate Umar appealed for volunteers and a sizeable army was raised under Abu Ubaid. Muthana succeeded in defeating Rustam the famous Persian in the battle of Namaraq.
Battle of Bridge/Jasr
Muthana and forces of Rustam meet. Abu Ubaid crossed the river, ended up being killed and got 6000 of his army killed.
Clash at Buwaib
When Umar got to know about battle of Jasr, he sent an army under Jasir. (Some chieftains of Christian tribes also joined them). The Persians were severely defeated
Battle of Qadisiya
Yezdagirdthe Persian monarch sent Rustam with a massive force to overcome the Muslims.
The Muslim army consisted of 10000 + 6000 under the command of Sa’d bin Abi Waqas.
The two armies met at Qadisiya for three days and 3 nights. Feirce battle ensued and 8,500 Muslims died. Victory on Ramadan 14 A.H. (635 AD)
Soon after, Sa’d bin Abi Waqas advanced to Babel and in 154A.H. beseiged the town. The seige lasted for months and finally the Persians gave in. Yezdagirdran away and took refuge in Hulwan where he had already removed his treasures.
Fall of Jalula
16A.H. Yezdagird occupied Jalula which was strongly fortified. Sa’d dispatched 12,000 men under Q’aqa to meet Persian challenge. Jalula was besieged for 80 days before Persians gave way. Mutual understanding between Persians and Muslims reached. Umar issued orders to stop advancing towards Persia, but later Umar had to lift the ban.
Total Victory over Persia
640A.D. Muslimsmoved on from Basra to Shustar.
642 A.D. Muslims besieged the town andtook Hormuzan prisoner. Hormuzan was sent to the Caliph at MEdina and managed to obtain mercy for his life. He embraced Islam and stayed at Medina as Caliph’s advisor on Persian affairs.
642A.D. Occupation of Khuzistan
A strong persian army gathered in Ninawand. The Muslim army was led by Noman bin Muqarrim. The army battled for 3 days and finally achieved the victory of victories.
During Abu Bakr’s illness, Muslims defeated Romans on the Syrian fronts (Battle of Ajnadain). The Romans had taken refuge in Antioch, and Khalid Bin Waleed marched on Damascus. For 6 months he blockaded the capital of Syria. Surrendered on Sep 10, 635.
Khalid promised the inhabitants their lives, property and freedom of religion in exchange for tribute money. At the end of 635 A.D. the whole of Syria and Palestine was in Muslim hands.
Battle of Yarmuk:
The Romans perpared a massive force to protect Jarusalem from Muslims. When the news of this massive preparation reached Muslims, Abu Ubaida decided to evacuate the occupied territory. The troops of Abu Ubaida, Amr bin al-‘As settled at the bank of river Yarmuk.
Summer 636 the two armies me. Muslims (40,000) met Byzantines(200,000). Muslim Victory!!!
Khalid bin Waleed was replaced by Umar with Abu Ubaida bin Jarrah.
After battle of Yarmuk, Muslims beseiged Jerusalem. Abu Ubaida came to assist the Muslim army. The inhabitants agreed to capitulations that caliph Umar would personally come to sign the treaty.
Egypt conquest 640A.D.
Amr bin al ‘As had great difficulty in persuading Umar to authorize the invasion of Egypt. In 640 A.D. Amr bin Al As (with 5000) men marched towards Fustat and laid seize for 7 months till the garrison surrendered and was granted amnesty.
In 642 Amr bin al ‘As captured Alexandria. After the conquest of Egypt, Fustat was made the capital on instructions from Umar.
Umar organised and expanded Majlis Shura introduced by Abu Bakr. It consisted of Ali, Abu Ubaida, Uthman, Talha, Zubair and Abdur Rahman bin Auf.
State was divided into provinces with a governer (Wali) – Mecca, Medina, Jazira, Basra, Kufa, Palestine and Egypt. Provinces were divided into districts. The district officers were known as ‘Amils. These were appointed by the Caliph in consultation with advisory council.
Established department of Finance called Diwan. The sources of income were Zakat, Jizya, Kharaj, Ghanima and Fay.
Army was divided into regular forces (who worked on permanent basis and were paid) and irregular forces (raised in times of emergency).
Qadis appointed – not subject to authority of provincial governers.
Death of Umar (644 A.D.)
Umar was murdered by a persian slave by the name Lulu.
He appointed 6 prominent companions for Caliphate – Ali, Uthman, Talha, Zubair, Sa’d bin Abi Waqas and Abdur Rahman bin Auf.