The series (so far ) contains:
We have till now looked at the first period of Islamic History (briefly) i.e. the time of the Prophet (s.a.w). In this post we will look at the 2nd period – i.e. the period of the rightly guided caliphs.
Abu Bakr (632 AD – 634A.D)
Abu Bakr was the first to accept the message that the Prophet(s.a.w.) brought forth without questioning him. Being a friend he knew the character and personality of the man who was known for his honesty. Abu Bakr was also the first to confirm the Prophet’s Isra & Mi’raj. He was the Prophet’s lone companion on Hijrah and used to substitute the Prophet in leading prayers when the Prophet wasn’t available.
Abu Bakr, Umar & Abu Ubaida rushed to council hall. The Ansar had decided to elect Sa’d bin Ubada as the Khalifah. After a lot of negotiations, Abu Bakr was finally chosen as the caliph.
Abu Bakr’s inaugural speech:
“O’ people, I swear by Allah that I never desired the leadership either by day or by night, nor did I have an inclination towards it…In fact a big task has been assigned to me which is beyond my power to fulfill except with the help of the Almighty Allah. Now undoubtedly Ihave been elected you Ameer although I am not better than you. Support me if I am right; correct me if I am wrong. Obey me as long as I obey Allah; obey me not when I disobey Him and His prophet.”
Osama’s Expedition (632A.D.)
The Prophet (s.a.w.) had given the orders to send Osama Bin Zaid against the Byzantine Empire, in the borders of Syria, just before his death. Abu Bakr dispatched the army whose departure had been postponed due to Prophet’s (s.a.w.) illness. The situation had become critical due to the apostates and issues arising and many companions were against the idea of sending Osama. Abu Bakr said, “Who am I to withhold the army that the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.) had himself dispatched.”
632A.D. Aswad ‘Ansi
During the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) life, he had dispatched Muadh Ibn Jabal to quell the uprising of Aswad “Ansi. He claimed prophethood and rose in Yemen. He invaded Najran and conquered it adn finally Sana’ and the rest of Yemen fell. Aswad Ansi’ died a day before the death of the Prophet(s.a.w.), but the news came after Abu Bakr’s proclamation of Khilafah.
Musailama Al Kazaab
This was the toughest & the most difficult campaign at the time of Abu Bakr. Musailama was from Yamama in Nejd and belonged to Banu Hanifa. Two armies udner Ikrima and Shurahbil bin Hasana were sent against him, but both were defeated. Finally Abu Bakr send Khalid Bin Walid to meet the challenge. Musailama had an army of 40,000 strong.
Musailama was finally killed ny a negro slave, webshi. 7000 muslims were killed during this battle including many Huffaz.
Tulaiha was the head of Banu Asad. Tulaiha was given support from the tribe of Tay. Khalid bin Walid was sent against him. Adi Bin Hatim went and explained Islam to him. Tulaiha joined Banu Jalila and was defeated by Khalid. Tulaiha finally fled to Syria where were reembraced Islam.
She seized opportunity due to the chaos and entered into alliance with the neighbouring Christian tribe. Malik bin Nuwaira also joined hands. Sajah went to fight Musailama first but reached a compromise and they got married. After a stay of 3 days with Musailama she retraced her steps.
Bahrain, Oman and Mahara
Insurrections developed and Abu Bakr sent armies to crush them. There were also instability in Yemen and Hadramout and was dealth with successfully.
In the north, several tribes were smarting under the territory of the Persians, including Muthana own tribe. Muthana formed an alliance with these tribes and raised an army of 8000 people. Khalid bin Walid was sent by Abu Bakr to reinforce the army, and the Persians were driven to Mesopotamia.
Battle of Ajnadain
Heracleus, the Roman emperor of Syria had been helping the enemies of Muslims during the Iraq campaign. Khalid bin Walid was sent by Abu Bakr who assembled a host of tribesmen at Tayma. The Muslim army advanced towards Palestine in four divisions under the command of Abu Ubaid, Shuhrbil bin Hasana, Yazid bin Abu Sufyan and Amr bin Al Aas. Muslims totalled to 37,000 while the Syrian forces were 200,000 strong.
During the battle at Ajnadain, 3000 Muslims were martyred. However, this was a splendid victory for the Muslims.
The news of this victory came when Abu Bakr was breathing his last.
Abu Bakr was ill for a period of 15 days and appointed Umar as the next caliph before his death. He died at the age of 63. His caliphate lasted for 2 years, 3 months and 11 days.
The Compilation of Quran.
Children: 3 boys and 3 girls (Abdullah, Abdur Rahman & Muhammad and Aisha, Asma and Umm Kulthum).
Profession: Cloth Merchant.
Full Name: Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafa.
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